FDA Clinical Trials: Step 3 of Clinical Research

Preclinical research may reveal important answers about a medicine’s safety, but it cannot replace studies on how the medication interacts with the human body. “Clinical research” refers to studies or FDA clinical trials done on people. As they design the clinical trial, the developers will begin the Investigational New Drug Process (IND), a process that must be completed before clinical research can begin, taking into consideration what they intend to accomplish for each of the several Clinical Research Phases.

This page contains information about:

Designing Clinical Trials
Clinical Research in its Early Stages
The FDA’s Support for the Investigational New Drug Process
FDA IND Review Team Approval

Designing Clinical Trials

Researchers design clinical trials to address specific difficulties with a medicinal product. These trials follow a specific study approach, or protocol, developed by the researcher or manufacturer. Before beginning a clinical trial, researchers analyze prior information about the medicine to develop study questions and objectives. They then select:

  • Who is eligible to take part? (Requirements for Eligibility)
  • How many people will take part in the study?
  • How long will the research last?
  • Whether or whether a control group will be employed, as well as other efforts to prevent research bias
  • Patients will be given medicine in the following ways and doses:
  • What tests will be conducted, when will they be performed, and how will data be collected?
  • How the data will be inspected and analyzed

Clinical trials are often conducted in this way, from early, small-scale Phase 1 research through late-stage, large-scale Phase 3 examinations.

What are the different stages of a clinical trial?

Phase 1

The study’s participants varied from 20 to 100 healthy volunteers or patients.
Several months of study
Dosage and safety are the goals.

Approximately 70% of drugs go to the next step.

Phase 2

The research included up to several hundred people with the sickness or condition.
Study time: from a few months to two years
Efficacy and side effects

Around 33% of drugs make it to the next phase.

Phase 3

The research will include 300 to 3,000 patients suffering from the sickness or condition.
One to four years of study
Monitoring of negative impacts and effectiveness

Approximately 25-30% of drugs go to the next step.

Phase 4

Thousands of volunteers with the sickness or condition are among those taking part in the research.
The objectives are safety and efficacy.

The Methodology for Investigational New Drugs

Drug inventors or sponsors must submit an Investigational New Drug (IND) application to the FDA before beginning clinical research.
The following must be included in the IND application by developers:

Data from animal research and toxicity (side effects that have a substantial impact on humans) data
Clinical processes (study schedules) for forthcoming investigations, manufacturing data, data from any previous human trials, and researcher information

Obtaining FDA Assistance

Drug developers may petition the FDA for help at any step of the drug development process, including:

  • Pre-IND application to review FDA guidance materials and receive clarity on any questions that will help enhance their research to gain advice on the design of large Phase 3 studies following Phase 2.
  • To get a review of the IND application at any stage of the processa

Despite the fact that the FDA offers extensive technical assistance, pharmaceutical firms are not required to adopt its recommendations. The FDA provides clinical trial designers a lot of latitude as long as the trials are well-planned, accurately reflect what product developers know, safeguard participants, and follow other government laws.

FDA Collaboration IND Examine

The review panel is made up of professionals from several scientific fields. Each team member is in charge of a different job.

  • Throughout the review process, the project manager acts as the primary point of contact for the sponsor and supervises the activities of the team.
  • The medical officer evaluates all data and information from clinical investigations before, during, and after the study.
  • Statistician: Interprets clinical trial designs and outcomes, and works closely with the medical officer to evaluate protocols, efficacy, and safety data.
  • Pharmacologists review preclinical research.
  • A pharmakineticist is someone who examines the absorption, distribution, breakdown, and excretion of pharmaceuticals.Blood-level data gathered during clinical trials at different time periods is interpreted in order to assess pharmaceutical dosages and delivery regimes.
  • Chemists investigate the chemical components of medications. investigates the production process of a medicine, its stability, quality assurance, consistency, presence of impurities, and so on.
  • If the product is antibacterial, a microbiologist evaluates the data to assess reaction across different kinds of germs.


The FDA review team must assess the initial IND application within 30 days. The process safeguards clinical study subjects from unreasonable and significant risk. IND filings get one of two FDA responses: authorisation to begin clinical research or denial.To suspend or terminate the investigation, utilize clinical hold.

  • The FDA may impose a clinical hold for a variety of reasons, including: Participants are at high risk.
  • The investigators lack expertise.
  • False materials are designed for volunteer participants.
  • The study’s risks are not adequately stated in the IND application.

Clinical holds are unusual; instead, the FDA often makes recommendations to enhance the quality of clinical research. In most cases, the applicant is allowed to proceed with the proposed study if the FDA is satisfied that the trial meets Federal requirements.

Any novel methods and serious adverse events that happened during the trial must be reported to the review panel by the developer. Thanks to this information, the team can carefully monitor the trials for any signs of problems. Following the conclusion of the trial, researchers must submit study reports.

The developer has the option of discontinuing clinical testing at any moment or submitting a marketing application. Before filing a marketing application, the developer must have adequate data from two large, controlled clinical trials.

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